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Frontiers of Structural and Civil Engineering

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, Volume 12 Issue 2 Previous Issue   
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REVIEW
Structural pavement assessment in Germany
Lutz PINKOFSKY, Dirk JANSEN
Front. Struct. Civ. Eng.. 2018, 12 (2): 183-191.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11709-017-0412-z
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The aging structure as well as the considerable increase of heavy-traffic load on Germany’s motorways and trunk roads encourages the use of innovative, sound and reliable methods for the structural assessment on network level as well as on project level. Essential elements for this are data, which allow a reliable assessment. For a holistic approach to structural pavement assessment performance orientated measurements will be necessary. In combination with functional parameters as well as write-down models, strategically motivated decision making processes will be useful combined with technically motivated decision processes. For the application at the network level, the available methods for performance orientated measurements are still challenging, as they are based either on testing drill-cores or on non-traffic speed methods. In recent years significant innovation steps have been made to bring traffic speed bearing capacity measurements and methods for evaluating pavement structures on the road. The paper summarizes the actual assessment procedures in Germany as well as the ongoing work on the development and implementation of new methods and techniques.

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Research Article
Pavement sustainability index for highway infrastructures: A case study of Maryland
Stella O. OBAZEE-IGBINEDION, Oludare OWOLABI
Front. Struct. Civ. Eng.. 2018, 12 (2): 192-200.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11709-017-0413-y
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Pavement deterioration creates conditions that undermine their performances, which gives rise to the need for maintenance and rehabilitation. This paper develops a mathematical multi-linear regression analysis (MLRA) model to determine a pavement sustainability index (PSTI) as dependent variable for flexible pavements in Maryland. Four categories of pavement performance evaluation indicators are subdivided into seven pavement condition indices and analyzed as independent variables for each section of pavement. Data are collected from five different roadways using field evaluations and existing database. Results indicate that coefficient of determination (R2) is correlated and significant, R2 = 0.959. Of the seven independent variables, present serviceability index (PSI) is the most significant with a coefficient value of 0.032, present serviceability rating (PSR) coefficient value= 0.028, and international roughness index (IRI) coefficient value= ?0.001. Increasing each unit value of coefficients for PSI and PSR would increase the value of PSTI; thereby providing a more sustainable pavement infrastructure; which explains the significance of the model and why IRI will most likely impact environmental, economic and social values.

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RESEARCH ARTICLE
A dimensional analysis on asphalt binder fracture and fatigue cracking
Qian ZHAO, Zhoujing YE
Front. Struct. Civ. Eng.. 2018, 12 (2): 201-206.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11709-017-0402-1
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Fracture and fatigue cracking in asphalt binder are two of most serious problems for pavement engineers. In this paper, we present a new comprehensive approach, which consists both of dimensional analysis using Buckingham Π Theorem and J-integral analysis based on classic fracture mechanics, to evaluate the fracture and fatigue on asphalt binder. It is discovered that the dimensional analysis could provide a new perspective to analyze the asphalt fracture and fatigue cracking mechanism.

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A preliminary research on wireless cantilever beam vibration sensor in bridge health monitoring
Xinlong TONG, Shanglin SONG, Linbing WANG, Hailu YANG
Front. Struct. Civ. Eng.. 2018, 12 (2): 207-214.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11709-017-0406-x
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According to specific bridge environment, optimal design piezoelectric cantilever beam structure by using results of theoretical calculations and simulation, verify natural frequencies of piezoelectric cantilever beam and production ability of data by experiment, thus formed a complete set of design method of piezoelectric cantilever beam. Considering natural frequency of vibration and intensity of the beam body, design a new type of piezoelectric cantilever beam structure. Paper analyzes the principle of sensor data acquisition and transmission, design a hardware integration system include signal conversion module, microcontroller module and wireless transmission module, test local read and wireless transmission for the combination structure of cantilever beam and data collection card, experimental verification of the radio piezoelectric vibrating cantilever vibration response is intact, the beam produced signal by vibration, acquisition card converts and wireless transmit data, this proved a good and intuitive linear response in simulation of bridge vibration test. Finally, the paper designed a kind of new wireless sensor of vibration cantilever beam, suitable for small bridge health monitoring based on Internet of things.

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Application of semi-analytical finite element method to analyze the bearing capacity of asphalt pavements under moving loads
Pengfei LIU, Dawei WANG, Frédéric OTTO, Markus OESER
Front. Struct. Civ. Eng.. 2018, 12 (2): 215-221.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11709-017-0401-2
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To facilitate long term infrastructure asset management systems, it is necessary to determine the bearing capacity of pavements. Currently it is common to conduct such measurements in a stationary manner, however the evaluation with stationary loading does not correspond to reality a tendency towards continuous and high speed measurements in recent years can be observed. The computational program SAFEM was developed with the objective of evaluating the dynamic response of asphalt under moving loads and is based on a semi-analytic element method. In this research project SAFEM is compared to commercial finite element software ABAQUS and field measurements to verify the computational accuracy. The computational accuracy of SAFEM was found to be high enough to be viable whilst boasting a computational time far shorter than ABAQUS. Thus, SAFEM appears to be a feasible approach to determine the dynamic response of pavements under dynamic loads and is a useful tool for infrastructure administrations to analyze the pavement bearing capacity.

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Investigating the raveling test for full-depth reclamation
Robert HILL, Andrew BRAHAM
Front. Struct. Civ. Eng.. 2018, 12 (2): 222-226.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11709-017-0423-9
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Full-Depth Reclamation (FDR) is a sustainable method of building pavement structure compared to more traditional rehabilitation methods. Traffic is generally returned to an FDR project before a surface course is applied, as water in the FDR needs time to evaporate from the structure. This should not be done too quickly or raveling occurs. Currently, there is no test to quantify the timing of return to traffic. In this study, the “Raveling test of cold mixed bituminous emulsion samples” (ASTM D7196) was used to compare asphalt emulsion and asphalt foam FDR. Asphalt emulsion samples were cured at ambient and 40 °C temperatures, while asphalt foam samples were cured at ambient temperatures. Raveling test data was collected from 0 to 48 hours of curing, however, samples were often not able to withstand fifteen minutes of testing. Therefore, the “time lasted” (the time the raveling head loses contact with the surface of the sample) was recorded. In general, the asphalt emulsion samples that were cured in the oven at 40 °C had a longer time lasted and showed higher potential for determination of return to traffic. In addition, the asphalt emulsion samples had a longer time lasted than the asphalt foam samples at ambient temperatures.

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Research Article
Investigation on the freeze-thaw damage to the jointed plain concrete pavement under different climate conditions
Shuaicheng GUO, Qingli DAI, Jacob HILLER
Front. Struct. Civ. Eng.. 2018, 12 (2): 227-238.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11709-017-0426-6
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Freeze-thaw damage is one of the main threats to the long time performance of the concrete pavement in the cold regions. This project aims to evaluate the influence of the freeze-thaw damages on pavement distresses under different climate conditions. Based on the Long-Term Pavement Performance (LTPP) data base, the freeze-thaw damage generated by four different kinds of climate conditions are considered in this project: wet-freeze, wet-non freeze, dry-freeze and dry-non freeze. The amount of the transverse crack and the joint spalling, along with the International Roughness Index (IRI) are compared among the test sections located in these four different climate conditions. The back calculation with the Falling Weight Deflectometer (FWD) test results based on the ERES and the Estimation of Concrete Pavement Parameters (ECOPP) methods are conducted to obtain concrete slab elastic modulus and the subgrade k-value. These two parameters both decrease with service time under freeze condition. Finally, MEPDG simulation is conducted to simulate the IRI development with service year. These results showed the reasonable freeze-thaw damage development with pavement service life and under different climate conditions.

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REVIEW
Recent advances in geosynthetic-reinforced retaining walls for highway applications
Jie HAN, Yan JIANG, Chao XU
Front. Struct. Civ. Eng.. 2018, 12 (2): 239-247.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11709-017-0424-8
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Geosynthetic-reinforced retaining (GRR) walls have been increasingly used to support roadways and bridge abutments in highway projects. In recent years, advances have been made in construction and design of GRR walls for highway applications. For example, piles have been installed inside GRR walls to support bridge abutments and sound barrier walls. Geosynthetic layers at closer spacing are used in GRR walls to form a composite mass to support an integrated bridge system. This system is referred to as a geosynthetic-reinforced soil (GRS)-integrated bridge systems (IBS) or GRS-IBS. In addition, short geosynthetic layers have been used as secondary reinforcement in a GRR wall to form a hybrid GRR wall (HGRR wall) and reduce tension in primary reinforcement and facing deflections. These new technologies have improved performance of GRR walls and created more economic solutions; however, they have also created more complicated problems for analysis and design. This paper reviews recent studies on these new GRR wall systems, summarizes key results and findings including but not limited to vertical and lateral earth pressures, wall facing deflections, and strains in geosynthetic layers, discusses design aspects, and presents field applications for these new GRR wall systems.

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A state-of-the-art review on interfacial behavior between asphalt binder and mineral aggregate
Meng GUO, Yiqiu TAN, Linbing WANG, Yue HOU
Front. Struct. Civ. Eng.. 2018, 12 (2): 248-259.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11709-017-0422-x
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The interface between asphalt binder and mineral aggregate directly affects the service life of pavement because the defects and stress concentration occur more easily there. The interaction between asphalt binder and mineral aggregate is the main cause of forming the interface. This paper presents an extensive review on the test technologies and analysis methods of interfacial interaction, including molecular dynamics simulation, phase field approach, absorption tests, rheological methods and macro mechanical tests. All of the studies conducted on this topic clearly indicated that the interfacial interaction between asphalt binder and mineral aggregate is a physical-chemical process, and can be qualitatively characterized by microscopical technique (such as SEM and AFM), and also can be quantitatively evaluated by rheological methods and interfacial mechanical tests. Molecular dynamics simulation and phase field approach were also demonstrated to be effective methods to study the interfacial behavior and its mechanism.

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